Selected scientific articles


Anti-Inflammatory Modulation of Microglia via CD163-Targeted Glucocorticoids Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in the 6-OHDA Parkinson's Disease Model.

Tentillier, N., Etzerodt, A., Olesen, M. N., Rizalar, F. S., Jacobsen, J., Bender, D., Moestrup, S. K., and Romero-Ramos, M. (2016) J Neurosci 36, 9375-9390


The Staphylococcus aureus Protein IsdH Inhibits Host Hemoglobin Scavenging to Promote Heme Acquisition by the Pathogen.

Saederup, K. L., Stodkilde, K., Graversen, J. H., Dickson, C. F., Etzerodt, A., Hansen, S. W., Fago, A., Gell, D., Andersen, C. B., and Moestrup, S. K. (2016) J Biol Chem 291, 23989-23998



Andersen, C. B., Stodkilde, K., Saederup, K. L., Kuhlee, A., Raunser, S., Graversen, J. H., and Moestrup, S. K. (2016) Antioxid Redox Signal in press


Anti-CD163-dexamethasone conjugate inhibits the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in rats.

Thomsen, K. L., Moller, H. J., Graversen, J. H., Magnusson, N. E., Moestrup, S. K., Vilstrup, H., and Gronbaek, H. (2016) World J Hepatol 8, 726-730


Soluble CD163, adiponectin, C-reactive protein and progression of dysglycaemia in individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the ADDITION-PRO cohort.

Deichgraeber, P., Witte, D. R., Moller, H. J., Skriver, M. V., Richelsen, B., Jorgensen, M. E., Johansen, N. B., and Sandbaek, A. (2016) Diabetologia 59, 2467-2476


Soluble CD163, a specific macrophage activation marker, is decreased by anti-TNF-alpha antibody treatment in active inflammatory bowel disease.

Dige, A., Stoy, S., Thomsen, K. L., Hvas, C. L., Agnholt, J., Dahlerup, J. F., Moller, H. J., and Gronbaek, H. (2014) Scand J Immunol 80, 417-423


Macrophage activation marker soluble CD163 may predict disease progression in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Kazankov, K., Rode, A., Simonsen, K., Villadsen, G. E., Nicoll, A., Moller, H. J., Lim, L., Angus, P., Kronborg, I., Arachchi, N., Gorelik, A., Liew, D., Vilstrup, H., Frystyk, J., and Gronbaek, H. (2016) Scand J Clin Lab Invest 76, 64-73


Plasma Soluble CD163 Level Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-1-Infected Individuals.

Knudsen, T. B., Ertner, G., Petersen, J., Moller, H. J., Moestrup, S. K., Eugen-Olsen, J., Kronborg, G., and Benfield, T. (2016) J Infect Dis 214, 1198-1204


Anti-CD163-dexamethasone protects against apoptosis after ischemia/reperfusion injuries in the rat liver.

Moller, L. N., Knudsen, A. R., Andersen, K. J., Nyengaard, J. R., Hamilton-Dutoit, S., Okholm Moller, E. M., Svendsen, P., Moller, H. J., Moestrup, S. K., Graversen, J. H., and Mortensen, F. V. (2015) Ann Med Surg (Lond) 4, 331-337


Macrophage activation marker soluble CD163 and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

Kazankov, K., Tordjman, J., Moller, H. J., Vilstrup, H., Poitou, C., Bedossa, P., Bouillot, J. L., Clement, K., and Gronbaek, H. (2015) J Gastroenterol Hepatol 30, 1293-1300


Macrophage activity assessed by soluble CD163 in early rheumatoid arthritis: association with disease activity but different response patterns to synthetic and biologic DMARDs.

Greisen, S. R., Moller, H. J., Stengaard-Pedersen, K., Hetland, M. L., Horslev-Petersen, K., Junker, P., Ostergaard, M., Hvid, M., and Deleuran, B. (2015) Clin Exp Rheumatol 33, 498-502


Soluble CD163 as a prognostic biomarker in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Nederby, L., Roug, A. S., Knudsen, S. S., Skovbo, A., Kjeldsen, E., Moller, H. J., and Hokland, M. (2015) Leuk Lymphoma 56, 3219-3221


Biomarkers of inflammation and axonal degeneration/damage in patients with newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis: contributions of the soluble CD163 CSF/serum ratio to a biomarker panel.

Stilund, M., Gjelstrup, M. C., Petersen, T., Moller, H. J., Rasmussen, P. V., and Christensen, T. (2015) PLoS One 10, e0119681


Soluble CD163 levels are elevated in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and are associated with impaired peripheral nerve function.

Kallestrup, M., Møller, H. J., Tankisi, H., and Andersen, H Diabetic medicine (2015), 32, 54-61


Intrahepatic fat content correlates with soluble CD163 in relation to weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

Fjeldborg, K., Pedersen, S. B., Møller, H. J., Rask, P., Danielsen, A. V., Stodkilde-Jorgensen, H., and Richelsen, B. Obesity (2015) 23, 154-161


Dexamethasone targeted directly to macrophages induces macrophage niches that promote erythroid expansion.

Falchi, M., Varricchio, L., Martelli, F., Masiello, F., Federici, G., Zingariello, M., Girelli, G., Whitsett, C., Petricoin, E. F., 3rd, Moestrup, S. K., Zeuner, A., and Migliaccio, A. R. Haematologica (2015) 100, 178-187


Visceral obesity is associated with increased soluble CD163 concentration in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Sørensen, L. P., Parkner, T., Sondergaard, E., Bibby, B. M., Møller, H. J., and Nielsen, S. Endocrine connections (2015) 4, 27-36


MelanA-negative spindle-cell associated melanoma, a distinct inflammatory phenotype correlated with dense infiltration of CD163 macrophages and loss of E-cadherin.

Bonnelykke-Behrndtz, M. L., Steiniche, T., Damsgaard, T. E., Georgsen, J. B., Danielsen, A., Bastholt, L., Møller, H. J., Norgaard, P. H., and Schmidt, H. Melanoma research (2015) 25, 113-118


Biodistribution and PET imaging of a novel [68Ga]-anti-CD163-antibody conjugate in rats with collagen-induced arthritis and in controls.

Eichendorff, S., Svendsen, P., Bender, D., Keiding, S., Christensen, E. I., Deleuran, B., and Moestrup, S. K Molecular imaging and biology (2015) 17, 87-93


Macrophage-related serum biomarkers soluble CD163 (sCD163) and soluble mannose receptor (sMR) to differentiate mild liver fibrosis from cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C: a pilot study.

Andersen, E. S., Rodgaard-Hansen, S., Moessner, B., Christensen, P. B., Møller, H. J., and Weis, N. European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases (2014) 33, 117-122


Monocyte/macrophage-derived soluble CD163: a novel biomarker in multiple myeloma.

Andersen, M. N., Abildgaard, N., Maniecki, M. B., Møller, H. J., and Andersen, N. F. European journal of haematology (2014) 93, 41-47



Soluble CD163, a specific macrophage activation marker, is decreased by anti-TNF-alpha antibody treatment in active inflammatory bowel disease.

Dige, A., Stoy, S., Thomsen, K. L., Hvas, C. L., Agnholt, J., Dahlerup, J. F., Møller, H. J., and Grønbæk, H. Scandinavian journal of immunology (2014)  80, 417-423



Structural basis for inflammation-driven shedding of CD163 ectodomain and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in macrophages.

Etzerodt, A., Rasmussen, M. R., Svendsen, P., Chalaris, A., Schwarz, J., Galea, I., Møller, H. J., and Moestrup, S. K.  The Journal of biological chemistry (2014) 289, 778-788



Regulation of CD163 mRNA and soluble CD163 protein in human adipose tissue in vitro.

Fjeldborg, K., Møller, H. J., Richelsen, B., and Pedersen, S. B. Journal of molecular endocrinology (2014)  53, 227-235


Human adipose tissue macrophages are enhanced but changed to an anti-inflammatory profile in obesity.

Fjeldborg, K., Pedersen, S. B., Møller, H. J., Christiansen, T., Bennetzen, M., and Richelsen, B. Journal of immunology research (2014), 309548



Soluble CD163, a macrophage activation marker, is independently associated with fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and C.

Kazankov, K., Barrera, F., Møller, H. J., Bibby, B. M., Vilstrup, H., George, J., and Grønbæk, H. Hepatology (2014) 60, 521-530


The macrophage activation marker sCD163 is associated with changes in NAFLD and metabolic profile during lifestyle intervention in obese children.

Kazankov, K., Møller, H. J., Lange, A., Birkebaek, N. H., Holland-Fischer, P., Solvig, J., Horlyck, A., Kristensen, K., Rittig, S., Handberg, A., Vilstrup, H., and Grønbæk, H. Pediatric obesity (2014) e-pub ahead of print


Monocyte expression and soluble levels of the haemoglobin receptor (CD163/sCD163) and the mannose receptor (MR/sMR) in septic and critically ill non-septic ICU patients.

Kjaergaard, A. G., Rodgaard-Hansen, S., Dige, A., Krog, J., Møller, H. J., and Tonnesen, E. PloS one (2014)  9, e92331


Increased concentrations of the soluble mannose receptor in serum from patients with pneumococcal bacteraemia, and prediction of survival.

Rodgaard-Hansen, S., Rafique, A., Weis, N., Wejse, C., Nielsen, H., Pedersen, S. S., Møller, H. J., and Kronborg, G. Infectious diseases (2015)  47, 203-208


Hepatic macrophage activation and the LPS pathway in patients with alcoholic hepatitis: a prospective cohort study.

Sandahl, T. D., Grønbæk, H., Møller, H. J., Stoy, S., Thomsen, K. L., Dige, A. K., Agnholt, J., Hamilton-Dutoit, S., Thiel, S., and Vilstrup, H. The American journal of gastroenterology (2014) 109, 1749-1756


Soluble CD163 as a marker of macrophage activity in newly diagnosed patients with multiple sclerosis.

Stilund, M., Reuschlein, A. K., Christensen, T., Møller, H. J., Rasmussen, P. V., and Petersen, T. PloS one (2014) 9, e98588



Plasma clearance of hemoglobin and haptoglobin in mice and effect of CD163 gene targeting disruption.

Etzerodt, A., Kjolby, M., Nielsen, M. J., Maniecki, M., Svendsen, P., and Moestrup, S. K., Antioxidants & redox signaling (2013) 18, 2254-2263


CD163 and inflammation: biological, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects.

Etzerodt, A., and Moestrup, S. K. Antioxidants & redox signaling (2013)  18, 2352-2363



The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids.

Thomsen HH, Møller HJ, Trolle C, Groth KA, Skakkebæk A, Bojesen A, Høst C, Gravholt CH.

Endocr Connect. (2013):2(4):216-24


Obesity Alters Adipose Tissue Macrophage Iron Content and Tissue Iron Distribution.

Orr JS, Kennedy A, Anderson-Baucum EK, Webb CD, Fordahl SC, Erikson KM,

Zhang Y, Etzerodt A, Moestrup SK, Hasty AH.

Diabetes. (2014): 63(2): 421-432




Mechanism of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense resistance to human serum.

Uzureau P, Uzureau S, Lecordier L, Fontaine F, Tebabi P, Homblé F, Grélard A, Zhendre V, Nolan DP, Lins L, Crowet JM, Pays A, Felu C, Poelvoorde P, Vanhollebeke B, Moestrup SK, Lyngsø J, Pedersen JS, Mottram JC, Dufourc EJ, Pérez-Morga D, Pays E.

Nature. (2013);501(7467):430-4


Targeting Dexamethasone to Macrophages in a Porcine Endotoxemic Model.

Granfeldt A, Hvas CL, Graversen JH, Christensen PA, Petersen MD, Anton G, Svendsen P, Sølling C, Etzerodt A, Tønnesen E, Moestrup SK, Møller HJ.

Crit Care Med. (2013);41(11):e309-18


Soluble CD163 does not predict first-time myocardial infarction in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a nested case-control study.

Knudsen A, Møller HJ, Katzenstein TL, Gerstoft J, Obel N, Kronborg G, Benfield T, Kjaer A, Lebech AM.

BMC Infect Dis. 2013; 13:230


Hepatic macrophage activation predicts clinical decompensation in chronic liver disease.

Rode A, Nicoll A, Møller HJ, Lim L, Angus PW, Kronborg I, Arachchi N, Gorelik A, Liew D, Kazankov K, Vilstrup H, Grønbæk H.

Gut. 2013; 62(8):1231-2


Investigation of human cationic antimicrobial protein-18 (hCAP-18), lactoferrin and CD163 as potential biomarkers for ovarian cancer.

Lim R, Lappas M, Riley C, Borregaard N, Moller HJ, Ahmed N, Rice GE.

J Ovarian Res. 2013; 6(1):5


Circulating levels of the shed scavenger receptor sCD163 and association with outcome of critically ill patients.

Ingels C, Møller HJ, Hansen TK, Wouters PJ, Vanhorebeek I, Van den Berghe G.

J Clin Immunol. 2013: (3):619-29


The haptoglobin-CD163-heme oxygenase-1 pathway for hemoglobin scavenging.

Thomsen JH, Etzerodt A, Svendsen P, Moestrup SK.

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:523652


CD163 binding to haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes involves a dual-point electrostatic receptor-ligand pairing.

Nielsen MJ, Andersen CB, Moestrup SK.

J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(26):18834-41


Structure of the haptoglobin-haemoglobin complex.

Andersen CB, Torvund-Jensen M, Nielsen MJ, de Oliveira CL, Hersleth HP, Andersen NH, Pederse, JS, Andersen GR, Moestrup SK

Nature 2012; 489(7416), 456-459


CD163 and inflammation: Biological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.

Etzerodt A, Moestrup SK.

Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012; 18(17), 2352-63


Plasma clearance of hemoglobin and haptoglobin in mice and effect of CD163 gene targeting disruption.

Etzerodt A, Kjolby M, Nielsen MJ, Maniecki MB, Svendsen P, Moestrup SK.

Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 2012; 18(17), 2254-2263


Targeting the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 in macrophages highly increases the anti-inflammatory potency of dexamethasone.
Graversen JH, Svendsen P, Dagnæs-Hansen F, Dal J, Anton G, Etzerodt A, Petersen MD,Christensen PA, Møller HJ, Moestrup SK.

Molecular therapy 2012; 20(8): 1550-1558


Soluble CD163, a marker of Kupffer cell activation, is related to portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis.

Grønbaek H, Sandahl TD, Mortensen C, Vilstrup H, Møller HJ, Møller S.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. (2012) 36(2):173-80


Soluble CD163: a biomarker linking macrophages and insulin resistance.

Parkner T, Sørensen LP, Nielsen AR, Fischer CP, Bibby BM, Nielsen S, Pedersen BK, Møller HJ.

Diabetologia. 2012; 55(6):1856-62



Tumor-promoting macrophages induce the expression of the macrophage-specific receptor CD163 in malignant cells.

Maniecki MB, Etzerodt A, Ulhøi BP, Steiniche T, Borre M, Dyrskjøt L, Orntoft TF, Moestrup SK, Møller HJ

Int. J. Cancer. 2012; 131(10), 2320-2331


Efficient intracellular drug-targeting of macrophages using stealth liposomes directed to the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163.

Etzerodt A, Maniecki MB, Graversen JH, Møller HJ, Torchilin VP, Moestrup SK.

J Control Release 2012; 160(1): 72-80


Soluble CD163

Møller HJ

Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 2012;72(1):1-13


The conserved scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily in therapy and diagnosis.

Martínez VG, Moestrup SK, Holmskov U, Mollenhauer J, Lozano F.

Pharmacol Rev. 2011 Dec;63(4):967-1000


Kupffer cells are activated in cirrhotic portal hypertension and not normalised by TIPS.

Holland-Fischer P, Grønbæk H, Sandahl TD, Moestrup SK, Riggio O, Ridola L, Aagaard NK, Møller HJ, Vilstrup H.

Gut. 2011 Oct;60(10):1389-93


Soluble macrophage-derived CD163 is a marker of disease activity and progression in early rheumatoid arthritis.

Greisen SR, Møller HJ, Stengaard-Pedersen K, Hetland ML, Hørslev-Petersen K, Jørgensen A, Hvid M, Deleuran B.

Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2011 Jul-Aug;29(4):689-92


Soluble CD163 levels in children with sickle cell disease.

Moller HJ, Nielsen MJ, Bartram J, Dick MC, Height SE, Moestrup SK, Rees DC.

British Journal of Haematology. 2011 Apr;153(1):105-10.


Comparative assessment of the recognition of domain-specific CD163 monoclonal antibodies in human monocytes explains wide discrepancy in reported levels of cellular surface CD163 expression.

Maniecki MB, Etzerodt A, Moestrup SK, Møller HJ, Graversen JH

Immunobiology 2011Aug; 216(8): 882-90


Serum Soluble CD163 Predicts Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the General Population.

Møller HJ, Frikke-Schmidt R, Moestrup SK, Nordestgaard BG, Tybjærg-Hansen A.

Clin Chem. 2011 Feb;57(2):291-7


Tumor necrosis factor {alpha}-converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM17) mediates ectodomain shedding of the scavenger receptor CD163.

Etzerodt A, Maniecki MB, Møller K, Møller HJ, Moestrup SK.

J Leukoc Biol. 2010 Dec;88(6):1201-5


Hemoglobin and heme scavenger receptors.

Nielsen MJ, Møller HJ, Moestrup SK.

Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010 Feb;12(2):261-73.


Soluble macrophage-derived CD163: a homogenous ectodomain protein with a dissociable haptoglobin-hemoglobin binding.

Møller HJ, Nielsen MJ, Maniecki MB, Madsen M, Moestrup SK.

Immunobiology. 2010 May;215(5):406-12.


Receptor targeting of hemoglobin mediated by the haptoglobins: roles beyond heme scavenging.

Nielsen MJ, Moestrup SK.

Blood. 2009 Jul 23;114(4):764-71


Macrophage markers in serum and tumor have prognostic impact in American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I/II melanoma.

Jensen TO, Schmidt H, Møller HJ, Høyer M, Maniecki MB, Sjoegren P, Christensen IJ, Steiniche T.

J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jul 10;27(20):3330-7


Effect of treatment with human apolipoprotein A-I on atherosclerosis in uremic apolipoprotein-E deficient mice.

Pedersen TX, Bro S, Andersen MH, Etzerodt M, Jauhiainen M, Moestrup SK, Nielsen LB.

Atherosclerosis. 2009 Feb;202(2):372-81.


Impaired CD163-mediated hemoglobin-scavenging and severe toxic symptoms in patients treated with gemtuzumab ozogamicin.

Maniecki MB, Hasle H, Friis-Hansen L, Lausen B, Nielsen OJ, Bendix K, Moestrup SK, Møller HJ.

Blood. 2008 Aug 15;112(4):1510-4.


A haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor conveys innate immunity to Trypanosoma brucei in humans.

Vanhollebeke B, DeMuylder G, Nielsen MJ, Pays A, Tebabi P, Dieu M, Raes M, Moestrup SK, Pays E.

Science. 2008 May 2;320(5876):677-81.


New immunological serum markers in bacteraemia: anti-inflammatory soluble CD163, but not proinflammatory high mobility group-box 1 protein, is related to prognosis.

Gaïni S, Pedersen SS, Koldkaer OG, Pedersen C, Moestrup SK, Møller HJ.

Clin Exp Immunol. 2008 Mar;151(3):423-31.


Trimerization of apolipoprotein A-I retards plasma clearance and preserves antiatherosclerotic properties.

Graversen JH, Laurberg JM, Andersen MH, Falk E, Nieland J, Christensen J, Etzerodt M, Thøgersen HC, Moestrup SK.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2008 Feb;51(2):170-7.


Soluble CD163 from activated macrophages predicts mortality in acute liver failure.

Møller HJ, Grønbaek H, Schiødt FV, Holland-Fischer P, Schilsky M, Munoz S, Hassanein T, Lee WM; U.S. Acute Liver Failure Study Group.

J Hepatol. 2007 Nov;47(5):671-6.


A unique loop extension in the serine protease domain of haptoglobin is essential for CD163 recognition of the haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex.

Nielsen MJ, Petersen SV, Jacobsen C, Thirup S, Enghild JJ, Graversen JH, Moestrup SK.

J Biol Chem. 2007 Jan 12;282(2):1072-9.


Macrophage serum markers in pneumococcal bacteremia: Prediction of survival by soluble CD163.

Møller HJ, Moestrup SK, Weis N, Wejse C, Nielsen H, Pedersen SS, Attermann J, Nexø E, Kronborg G.

Crit Care Med. 2006 Oct;34(10):2561-6.


Haptoglobin-related protein is a high-affinity hemoglobin-binding plasma protein.

Nielsen MJ, Petersen SV, Jacobsen C, Oxvig C, Rees D, Møller HJ, Moestrup SK.

Blood. 2006 Oct 15;108(8):2846-9.


The macrophage scavenger receptor CD163: endocytic properties of cytoplasmic tail variants.

Nielsen MJ, Madsen M, Møller HJ, Moestrup SK.

J Leukoc Biol. 2006 Apr;79(4):837-45


Identification of the receptor scavenging hemopexin-heme complexes.

Hvidberg V, Maniecki MB, Jacobsen C, Højrup P, Møller HJ, Moestrup SK.

Blood. 2005 Oct 1;106(7):2572-9.


Soluble hemoglobin-haptoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 as a lineage-specific marker in the reactive hemophagocytic syndrome.

Schaer DJ, Schleiffenbaum B, Kurrer M, Imhof A, Bächli E, Fehr J, Moller HJ, Moestrup SK, Schaffner A.

Eur J Haematol. 2005 Jan;74(1):6-10.


CD163: a regulated hemoglobin scavenger receptor with a role in the anti-inflammatory response.

Moestrup SK, Møller HJ.

Ann Med. 2004;36(5):347-54.


Molecular characterization of the haptoglobin.hemoglobin receptor CD163. Ligand binding properties of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain region.

Madsen M, Møller HJ, Nielsen MJ, Jacobsen C, Graversen JH, van den Berg T, Moestrup SK.

J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 3;279(49):51561-7.


Plasma level of the macrophage-derived soluble CD163 is increased and positively correlates with severity in Gaucher's disease.

Møller HJ, de Fost M, Aerts H, Hollak C, Moestrup SK.

Eur J Haematol. 2004 Feb;72(2):135-9.


CD163: a signal receptor scavenging haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes from plasma.

Graversen JH, Madsen M, Moestrup SK.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2002 Apr;34(4):309-14.


Identification of the hemoglobin scavenger receptor/CD163 as a natural soluble protein in plasma.

Møller HJ, Peterslund NA, Graversen JH, Moestrup SK.

Blood. 2002 Jan 1;99(1):378-80.


Haptoglobin and CD163: captor and receptor gating hemoglobin to macrophage lysosomes.

Madsen M, Graversen JH, Moestrup SK.

Redox Rep. 2001;6(6):386-8. Review.


Identification of the haemoglobin scavenger receptor.

Kristiansen M, Graversen JH, Jacobsen C, Sonne O, Hoffman HJ, Law SK, Moestrup SK.

Nature. 2001 Jan 11;409(6817):198-201.












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